The January-December "Gregorian calendar" is the Roman Catholic legal system court calendar
For thousands of years people have been using the Roman Catholic legal system "court calendar" with the 12 named months January-December.
The 12-month legal calendar system was created in the year 46 BC as a new calendar for the legal court-system of the Roman Empire.
It was named the "Julian calendar" in honor of the Roman Emoper, Julius Ceasar.
The 12-month Julian calendar is a seasonal sun calendar used to record the 365.25 -days it-takes our planet to orbit once around our Sun.
But more importantly it is a legal recordkeeping system for documenting all business transactions on Earth for the Roan Catholic Church.
The rising-and-setting of the Sun on the horizon, especially if sighted correctly with stone-markers, can identify the exact day of the spring equinox and with-it the return of the growing seasons, which is important-to-know especially when one is farming.
The Julian calendar was ordered into use by decree of Julius Caesar, in the year 709 of Rome, in 46 BC, as the official business and court-calendar for his colossal worldwide Roman Empire.
This new 12-month "Leap Yea" calendar system (with an extra-day added every four-years) was brought to the-attention of the Roman courts by a Greek-slave named “Sosigenes.”
Sosigenes had observed that every fourth-year the rising-and-setting of the Sun at the winter solstice would arrive a day-earlier than expected, as seen and marked-on-the-horizon from previous winter solstices. He realized that the knowm calculated-length of each Earth-‘year’orbit of 365-days was slightly wrong. Hefigured-out through observations that the Earth-orbit was slightly-more-than 365-days, about a quarter-day longer, about 8-hours; 365-days plus one-quarter day.
So Sosigenes created a simple adjustment-formula that added an ‘extra-day’ every four-years. And he also divided the year into 12-months and accounted for the-shorter-winter season and the longer-summer months by assigning 2-less days for February and 1-more day for August.
The Greek calendar-maker presented his theory to the Roman courts. He must have discussed creating a new calendar, a 12-month calendar with his facts about the Earths’ yearly 365-day cycle needing to be adjusted an extra-day every-four-years, along with the number-of days in each month needing to be adjusted-too, alternating between 30 and 31 days.
Julius Caesar knew that the older Roman calendar system was not-very accurate, in use before 46 BC it did not even track the entire winter months, so a new calendar would be a big improvement.
With a new calendar system it would allow the Roman court officials to forecast and accurately predict the growing seasons and more importantly: to control "time". Special holy-days could be planned and designated months in advance with exact accuracy.
This new calendar re-formatted the day-to-day life of Roman citizens and their slaves within the Roman Empire. It re-set the marketplace days and, most importantly, the official court days, and the holy-days or "holidays".
The Julian calendar created "the idea" of the 7-day-week and the 5-day-work-week, the Roman pagan holy-day each week on Sun-Day, i.e., Sunday.
Caesar gave names to the 12 months and the 7 days-of-the-week after various Roman pagan gods, goddesses, a festival, planets, one of his relatives, and an important Roman family-clan.
> HERE THEY ARE:
PAGAN NAMES of the 7 DAYS: The JULIAN & GREGORIAN Calendars:
(Latin name planet = Old English = English)
Dies Solis sun = Sun’s Day which became Sunday
Dies Lunae moon = Moon’s Day which became Monday
Dies Martis mars = Tiw’s Day which became Tuesday
Dies Mercurii mercury = Woden’s Day which became Wednesday
Dies Jovis jupiter = Thor’s Day which became Thursday
Dies Veneris venus = Frigg’s Day which became Friday
Dies Saturni saturn = Seterne’s Day which became Saturday
PAGAN NAMES of the MONTH: The JULIAN & GREGORIAN Calendars:
Januarius. Janus - the two-faced god of doorways, beginnings, and endings. January
Februarius. Februa - festival of purification. February
Martius. Mars - planet and the god of war. March
Aprilis. Aphrodite - the goddess of planet Venus. April
Maius. Maia - one of the "Seven Sisters" Pleiadian goddess. May
Junius. Juno - the god of Jupiter, and the name of a Roman clan. June
Julius. Julius Caesar - the Roman general and statesman. July
Augustus. Caesar Augustus - the first Roman emperor, nephew of Julius. August
September. Septem (seven in Latin) - seventh Roman month. September
October. Octo (‘eight’ in Latin) - eighth Roman month. October
November. Nove (‘nine’ in Latin) - ninth Roman month. November
December. Decem (‘ten’ in Latin) - tenth Roman month. December
But, the Greek-inspired Roman Empire Julian calendar system was still not-quite exactly accurate.
One-YEAR Earth orbit cycle = 365-days, 8-hours, 11-minutes and 14-seconds
In the year 730 AD the Anglo-Saxon monk St. Bede the Venerable told the Church of: his discovery that the Earth-year is actually 11-minutes and 14-seconds longer than previously thought; and that the Julian calendar was many days off-count by the accumulation of 11+minutes each year. But no-one in the Church acted-on his information then.
By the 13th-century, monk Roger Bacon convinced the interested Roman Catholic Pope Clement VI of wha the Anglo-Saxon monk St. Bede the Venerable told the Church in 730 AD, but the Pope soon died and nothing was done to correct the accumulated extra days error.
Those 11-minutes-and-14-seconds each-year continued to accumulate so that after another 300+years, by the mid-1500’s, the Julian calendar spring-equinox date was 10 days off. It would be like a date being written as March 11 when it was really March 21.
The adjusted calendar of Pope Gregory the 13th: the Gregorian calendar
In the mid-1520’s the King of Spain was sponsoring armies of European men to explore-and-subjugate the newly ‘discovered’ Amorican continent and people, and they returned with looted ‘artifacts’ from the Aztec and Mayan cities; and some pirated items were taken to Rome, usually by way of Jesuit missionary journeys.
Sometime before the year 1572 AD a Jesuit astronomer named “Clavius” took-on the "time problem" that the Julian calendar was experiencing.
Clavius attended the Roman Catholic Church courts of Pope Gregory the 13th in 1572, where he pleaded with the court to stop-and-correct the Church calendar once and for all.
Clavius must have detailed why the Church calendar was now "off" by 10 days.
Clavius explained a simple 'three part solution': (1) If the leap-year is omitted at the end of every 100-years; AND, (2) if every 400-years the leap-year day is left in, then the Church calendar could keep an accurate count over the next 20,000-years; AND, (3) the present Church calendar must now be adjusted 10 days FORWARD.
“In the year of Our Lord 1582,” ten-years later, Pope Gregory-the-13th issued a decree officially resetting the Roman Catholic Church calendar forward by 10 days, so that after October 4 came October 15. Those two days must have been interesting to experience!
This realigned the Church calendar so that the spring-equinox would appear again on the correct calendar day: March 21 or 22.
This 10-day adjustment was very important to the Church for the marking of certain religious ceremonial dates; notably Easter, which depends-upon thecalculatio of: the first Sunday after the first full moon after the spring-equinox.
And thus began the new "Gregorian calendar"… the adjusted Julian calendar was re-named after Pope Gregory, of-course.
Various countries around the world began using this new-version Roman Catholic calendar over the next 100-years. There was resistance to the moving of the dates forward 10 days by those using the Julian calendar, for all different-types of personal and legal-business reasons.
230 years later, the growing English colonies in America ‘officially’ changed-over to the Gregorian calendar in September 1752.
The calendar by-then had to be adjusted forward by 11 days: Wednesday, September 2, was followed by Thursday, September 14.
The 260-day Calendar of The Americas
By the time of the new ‘Gregorian calendar' in the year 1582 AD, the 260-day calendar, the “Tzolkin” in maya language (pronounced: ZOL-kin), had already been-in-use for thousands of years throughout the "New World" of North, South and Central America.
The 260-day calendar was introduced to Rome sometime after the Spanish explorer Hernando Cortez arrived in Central America in 1519 AD.
Even before the establishment of Rome as a town in the 8th century BC, and two-thousand-years before the arrival of the Europeans, the 260-day calendars had already been fully developed and in use.
The Olmec-Mayan and Aztec calendars were being used throughout Central America; and by the Hopi nation in the southwestern United States by at-least the 1200's AD.
This 'split' between the Highland Maya calendar day count and Lowland Maya calendar day count can be traced back into the 1500's with the arrival of the "divide & conquor" Spanish Catholic Jesiuts in 1519 with Cortez.
There is also evidence that the Indonesian island people of Bali share similar customs of the Maya-and-Aztec cultures.
The Olmec-Mayan 260-day calendars pre-dates the Aztec-version by thousands of years.
The Olmec-Mayan (and Aztec) calendar is a 260-day-calendar that weaves- ogether two basic cycles of time.
The larger-of-the-two-cycles is the 20-Day-MONTH, with 20 unique-day-signs assigned to each-of-the-20-days-of-the-Month.
The smaller-cycle is the 13-day-WEEK, associated-with the NUMBERS 1 through 13 and drawn-using a dot-and-bar notation-system.
one-Dot = 1
one-Bar = 5
one-Clam-Shell = 20
Within each 260-day-calendar-cycle are 20-weeks of 13-days-each.
20 x 13-days = 260-days
Each of the twenty-13-day-weeks signifies a unique-spiritual-journey of 13-days.
These-two-cycles in-combination create the 260-day 'sacred' Mayan-calendar.
Tracking-Time with the "Twin-Star" Venus
Many-cultures around-the-world notice-and-record the rising-and-setting-patterns of the brightest-light in the evening-and-early-morning-skies th planet, named-in-English: "Venus."
The Olmec-and-Maya-cultures of Mexico and the Guatemala-highlands in Central America, are the-first to create a 260-day Venus-calendar, recognized today as the-most-accurate-calendar-in-the-world.
In Maya-lore, Venus, the bright-light traveling the sky, is the "Two-Brothers": the Feathered-Serpent and his Shadow-Twin brother.
The planet Venus rises in the East, in the early-pre-dawn-sky as the “Morning-Star” or Feathered-Serpent and is the third-brightest-light-in-the-sky after our Sun and Moon.
Venus shines-bright in the early-morning-pre-dawn-eastern-skies as the Morning-Star for 236-days or approximately-8-months.
The Feathered-Serpent-days are days of of: peace, rebirth, rebuilding and common-unity.
After 236-days as the Feathered-Serpent/Morning-Star Venus disappears from the skies for 90-days, slowly spinning-away, farther-and-farther from Earth, hidden-away from view behind-the-Sun.
After 90-days hidden behind-the-Sun, Venus is seen rising-again after-sunset in the West evening-sky.
There in the western-skies Venus shines as the “Evening-Star” or Shadow-Twin for 250-days.
The Shadow-Twin-days are days of: ceremonial-challenges and ceremonial-conflict-theater or real-war and unexpected-challenges.
Venus as the Evening-Star becomes brighter-and-brighter as it moves towards Earth, closer-and-closer on its-nearest-approach to Earth every 1.6-years.
Then, just as Venus is at its-brightest right-after-sunset, it-disappears for 8-days. In Maya-lore, the Shadow-Twin has died.
For 8-days Venus moves across the front-face-of-the-Sun, hidden by the glare-of-the-Sun, and directly-between the Sun and the Earth. It’s at these-moments, every ~19 months, when our-nearest-neighbor planet-Venus passes close-by to Earth.
After 8-days hidden, Venus reappears, reborn at dawn at the side-of-the-Sun, at sunrise in the East dawn-sky.
In its new-phase as the Morning-Star, the Feathered-Serpent is the brightest-light before dawn for the next 236-days.
The Morning-Star/Feathered-Serpent days of peace, rebirth, rebuilding and common-unity return. The Tides of Time.
When Venus is approaching Earth as the Evening-Star: the combined-magnetic-&-gravitational-forces of the Earth-and-Venus, as they move closer-together, increases pressure-and-stress. For example: when two-bar-magnets, with the same positive-sides-or-negative-sides facing-each-other, are forced-together this-creates a strong RESISTANCE-&-ENERGY-re-balancing, which precipitates the stronger-force-fields energy-&-stress the closer the magnets are.
When Venus becomes the Morning-Star: the combined-magnetic-&-gravitational-forces of the Earth-and-Venus: decrease, subside, move apart, and reduces overall-pressure-and-stress.
These rising-and-setting-patterns of the planet-Venus are repeated on-average every 584.92-days, that's about every ~19-months.
These Venus-'fly-by'-patterns repeat exactly five-times-every-8-years, during five-different-months of the year.
Let’s examine this 8-year pulse, this 8-year rhythm of Venus.
It is a VERY-important rhythm. Indeed, it is a hythm that connects to the musical-scale, a truly-sacred-rhythm-pattern that holds the-key to understanding the-musical-encoding-of-time in our solar-system.
If we could super-speedup time and watch the orbits of the-planets-around-our-Sun from high-above our solar-system, we would-see that over every 8-year-cycle-of-time Venus exactly-aligns-between the Sun-and-the-Earth 5-times, creating a spiraling 5-pointed-star-pattern around the Sun.
A five-pointed-star-pattern is exactly the-same-kind-of-pattern-design detected within the double-helix-spiral-blueprints of genetic-DNA, in the cells of all-living-creatures on Earth.
The organs of the body are spaced a certain-distance from the brain, and in the-same-way the 'organs' of our solar-system, the Planets, are spaced a certain-distance from the Sun.
The key to the accuracy of the Maya-calendar is that its-based-upon the exact-rising-and-setting-dates of the planet-Venus, as was-recorded within the ancient-Maya-painted-paper-sacred-books; for Venus-creates a five-pointed-star-pattern-orbit around our Sun.
Maya-astronomers recorded the exact-Mayan-dates Venus-appears-and-disappears-in-the-sky over 8-year-cycles-of-time. Many pages of calculations for Venus are matched with the Mayan-symbol Ajaw or Ahau (LORD or SUN) as documented in the Mayan-records.
The Mayan-symbol representing the planet-Venus are drawn next-to the Mayan-calendar day: Ajaw or LORD.
So, Mayan-calendar accuracy Rule #1 is: Every 8-years the first-sighting of Venus-rising in the-eastern-dawn-sky occurs on Mayan-day: Ajaw LORD.
Currently, Venus is in its new-phase as the Morning-Star, the Feathered-Serpent, and is the brightest-light before dawn for 236-days.
The Morning-Star/Feathered-Serpent days of peace, rebirth, rebuilding and common-unity have returned.
The most-recent major-date in the 8-year-cycle for Venus-rising as the Feathered-Serpent and Morning-Star:
~October 31, 2018 12 LORD ajaw - day #220
The first-sighting of Venus-rising on the specific-Mayan-calendar-day of LORD ajaw every-eight-years determines the-correct-Maya-calendar-day of adjustment, if neccessary, to keep-the-calendar-accurate.
Like both the Gregorian-and-Julian-calendars the Mayan-calendar must-also-be-adjusted, a-day-backwards sometimes, one-day must-be-subtracted, about every ten years-or-so, if neccessary.
Because of the orbit-length-of-the-Venus-year, 224.7-days, those "partially-missing"-days every-year of 0.3-days begin-to-add-up.
The Venus-Sun-'inconjunct'-alignments occur 3-days-earlier every-10-years. So even-with the 2-extra-leap-year-days added-in-every-8-years an-additional-day-must-be-subtracted to keep-the-Mayan-calendar-aligned to the rising-of-Venus on LORD ajaw days.
Year 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Venus Days 0.3 0.6 0.9 1.2 1.5 1.8 2.1 2.4 2.7 3.0
This then raises-challenging-questions, such-as: How-can-we subtract one-day? Where-does that-Mayan-day go? And, WHEN-does the-adjustment-take-place, if-needed?
We-must-realize that the 260-day-calendar is really-tracking an-invisible-subtle-‘energy-field’ that the-planets-are-always-moving-thru. And since the-planets do-not-have-exact-circular-orbital-patterns, the-orbits-are-egg-shaped, their-orbital-revolutions we-observe mathematically-have-variations that do-not-overtly-appear-at-first as simple-Earth-time-calculation-formulas and so we-have-to-adjust our-Sun-based-calendars to-compensate.
The total-mayan-calendar-'energy-field' is actually slightly-less-than-260-days in-duration. So little-by-little every-day, every-month and every-year the Mayan-calendar slowly-slips-backwards, so-that, for example, the Mayan-"New-Year-Day" happens-now in mid-January rather-than in March as-it-did in the-1500’s.
Here-then is the-ideal 8-Year-pattern as-recorded-in the Mayan-"Madrid-Codex":
Mayan-Symbol Venus - Rises-or-Sets (Star-Pattern-Cycles: 1 – 5)
LORD *Rises as Morning Star (1)
GUARDIAN Sets as Morning Star
DREAM Rises as Evening Star
GUARDIAN Sets as Evening Star
SEED *Rises as Morning Star (2)
LORD Sets as Morning Star
DOG Rises as Evening Star
LORD Sets as Evening Star
STAR *Rises as Morning Star (3)
SEED Sets as Morning Star
JAGUAR Rises as Evening Star
SEED Sets as Evening Star
STAIRS *Rises as Morning Star (4)
STAR Sets as Morning Star
FLINT Rises as Evening Star
STAR Sets as Evening Star
GUARDIAN *Rises as Morning Star (5)
STAIRS Sets as Morning Star
WIND Rises as Evening Star
STAIRS Sets as Evening Star