The January-December "Gregorian calendar" is the Roman Catholic legal system court calendar
For thousands of years people have been using the Roman Catholic legal system "court calendar" with the 12 named months January-December.
The 12-month legal calendar system was created in the year 46 BC as a new calendar for the legal court system of the Roman Empire.
It was named the "Julian Calendar" in honor of the Roman Emoper, Julius Ceasar.
The 12-month Julian Calendar is a seasonal sun calendar used to record the 365.25 days it takes our planet to orbit once around our Sun.
But more importantly it is a legal recordkeeping system for documenting all business transactions on Earth for the Roan Catholic Church.
The rising and setting of the Sun on the horizon, especially if sighted correctly with stone markers, can identify the exact day of the spring equinox and with it the return of the growing seasons, which is important to know especially when one is farming.
The Julian Calendar was ordered into use by decree of Julius Caesar, in the year 709 of Rome, in 46 BC, as the official business and court-calendar for his colossal worldwide Roman Empire.
This new 12-month "Leap Yea" calendar system (with an extra-day added every four-years) was brought to the attention of the Roman courts by a Greek-slave named “Sosigenes.”
Sosigenes had observed that every fourth-year the rising and setting of the Sun at the winter solstice would arrive a day earlier than expected, as seen and marked-on the horizon from previous winter solstices. He realized that the knowm calculated length of each Earth-‘year’orbit of 365-days was slightly wrong. He figured out through observations that the Earth orbit was slightly more than 365-days, about a quarter-day longer, about 8 hours; 365-days plus one-quarter day.
So Sosigenes created a simple adjustment formula that added an ‘extra-day’ every four-years. And he also divided the year into 12-months and accounted for the shorter winter season and the longer summer months by assigning 2-less days for February and 1-more day for August.
The Greek calendar maker presented his theory to the Roman courts. He must have discussed creating a new calendar, a 12-month calendar with his facts about the Earths’ yearly 365-day cycle needing to be adjusted an extra day every four-years, along with the number of days in each month needing to be adjusted, alternating between 30 and 31 days.
Julius Caesar knew that the older Roman calendar system was not very accurate, in use before 46 BC it did not even track the entire winter months, so a new calendar would be a big improvement.
With a new calendar system it would allow the Roman court officials to forecast and accurately predict the growing seasons and more importantly: to control "time". Special holy days, or holidays, could be planned and designated months in advance with exact accuracy.
This new calendar re-formatted the day-to-day life of Roman citizens and their slaves within the Roman Empire. It reset the marketplace days and, most importantly, the official court days, and the holy days or holidays.
The Julian Calendar created "the idea" of the 7-day week and the 5-day court-business week, the Roman pagan holy day each week on Sun-Day, i.e., Sunday.
Caesar gave names to the 12 months and the 7 days of the week after various Roman pagan gods, goddesses, a festival, planets, one of his relatives, and an important Roman family-clan.
> HERE THEY ARE:
PAGAN NAMES of the 7 DAYS: The JULIAN & GREGORIAN Calendars:
(Latin name planet = Old English = English)
Dies Solis sun = Sun’s Day which became Sunday
Dies Lunae moon = Moon’s Day which became Monday
Dies Martis mars = Tiw’s Day which became Tuesday
Dies Mercurii mercury = Woden’s Day which became Wednesday
Dies Jovis jupiter = Thor’s Day which became Thursday
Dies Veneris venus = Frigg’s Day which became Friday
Dies Saturni saturn = Seterne’s Day which became Saturday
PAGAN NAMES of the MONTH: The JULIAN & GREGORIAN Calendars:
Januarius. Janus - the two-faced god of doorways, beginnings, and endings. January
Februarius. Februa - festival of purification. February
Martius. Mars - planet and the god of war. March
Aprilis. Aphrodite - the goddess of planet Venus. April
Maius. Maia - one of the "Seven Sisters" Pleiadian goddess. May
Junius. Juno - the god of Jupiter, and the name of a Roman clan. June
Julius. Julius Caesar - the Roman general and statesman. July
Augustus. Caesar Augustus - the first Roman emperor, nephew of Julius. August
September. Septem (seven in Latin) - seventh Roman month. September
October. Octo (‘eight’ in Latin) - eighth Roman month. October
November. Nove (‘nine’ in Latin) - ninth Roman month. November
December. Decem (‘ten’ in Latin) - tenth Roman month. December
But, the Greek-inspired Roman Empire Julian Calendar system was still not quite exactly accurate.
One-YEAR Earth orbit cycle = 365-days, 8-hours, 11-minutes and 14-seconds
In the year 730 AD the Anglo-Saxon monk St. Bede the Venerable told the Church of: his discovery that the Earth-year is actually 11-minutes and 14-seconds longer than previously thought; and that the Julian Calendar was many days off-count by the accumulation of 11+minutes each year. But no-one in the Church acted on his information then.
By the 13th-century, monk Roger Bacon convinced the interested Roman Catholic Pope Clement VI of wha the Anglo-Saxon monk St. Bede the Venerable told the Church in 730 AD, but the Pope soon died and nothing was done to correct the accumulated extra days error.
Those 11-minutes-and-14-seconds each-year continued to accumulate so that after another 300+years, by the mid-1500’s, the Julian calendar Spring Equinox date was 10 days off. It would be like a date being written as March 11 when it was really March 21.
The adjusted calendar of Pope Gregory the 13th: the Gregorian calendar
In the mid-1520’s the King of Spain was sponsoring armies of European men to explore-and-subjugate the newly ‘discovered’ Amorican continent and people, and they returned with looted ‘artifacts’ from the Aztec and Mayan cities; and some pirated items were taken to Rome, usually by way of Jesuit missionary journeys.
Sometime before the year 1572 AD a Jesuit astronomer named “Clavius” took-on the "time problem" that the Julian Calendar was experiencing.
Clavius attended the Roman Catholic Church courts of Pope Gregory the 13th in 1572, where he pleaded with the court to stop-and-correct the Church calendar once and for all.
Clavius must have detailed why the Julian Calendar was now "off" by 10 days.
Clavius explained a simple 'three part solution': (1) If the leap year is omitted at the end of every 100-years; AND, (2) if every 400-years the leap year day is left in, then the Church calendar could keep an accurate count over the next 20,000-years; AND, (3) the present Church calendar must now be adjusted 10 days FORWARD.
“In the year of Our Lord 1582,” ten-years later, Pope Gregory-the-13th issued a decree officially resetting the Roman Catholic Church calendar forward by 10 days, so that after October 4 came October 15.
This realigned the Church calendar so that the Spring Equinox would appear again on the correct calendar day: March 21 or 22.
This 10-day adjustment was very important to the Church for the marking of certain religious ceremonial dates; notably Easter, which depends upon the calculatio of: the first Sunday after the first full moon after the spring-equinox.
And thus began the new "Gregorian Calendar"; the adjusted Julian Calendar was re-named after Pope Gregory, of course.
Various countries around the world began using this new version of the Roman Catholic calendar over the next 100-years. There was resistance to the moving of the dates forward 10 days by those using the Julian Calendar, for all different types of personal and legal-business reasons.
230-years later, the growing English colonies in America ‘officially’ changed-over to the Gregorian Calendar in September 1752.
The calendar by-then had to be adjusted forward by 11 days: Wednesday, September 2, was followed by Thursday, September 14.
The 260-day Calendar of The Americas
By the time of the new "Gregorian" calendar' in the year 1582 AD, the 260-day calendar, the “Tzolkin” in maya language (pronounced: ZOL-kin), had already been in use for thousands of years throughout the "New World" of North, South and Central America.
The 260-day calendar was introduced to Rome sometime after the Spanish explorer Hernando Cortez arrived in Central America in 1519 AD.
Even before the establishment of Rome as a town in the 8th century BC, and two-thousand years before the arrival of the Europeans, the 260-day calendars had already been fully developed and in use.
The 260-day Olmec-Mayan and Aztec calendars were being used throughout Central America; and by the Hopi nation in the southwestern United States by at-least the 1200's AD.
This 'split' between the Highland Maya calendar day count and Lowland Maya calendar day count can be traced back into the 1500's with the arrival of the "divide & conquor" Spanish Catholic Jesiuts in 1519 with Cortez.
There is also evidence that the Indonesian island people of Bali share similar customs of the Maya and Aztec cultures.
The Olmec-Mayan 260-day calendars pre-dates the Aztec version by thousands of years. All the same calendars, but with different names for the 20 daysigns.
The Olmec-Mayan (and Aztec) calendar is a 260-day calendar that weaves together two basic cycles of time.
The larger of the two time cycles is the 20-Day MONTH, with 20 unique daysigns assigned to each of the 20 days of the Mayan "month".
The smaller cycle is the 13-day WEEK, associated with the NUMBERS 1 through 13 and drawn using a dot and bar notation system.
one Dot = 1
one Bar = 5
one Clam Shell = 20
Within each 260-day calendar cycle are 20 weeks of 13 days each.
20 x 13-days = 260-days
Each of the twenty 13-day Mayan "weeks" signifies a unique spiritual journey of 13 days.
These two cycles in combination create the 260-day sacred Mayan calendar.
Tracking Time with the "Twin Star" Venus
Many cultures around the world notice and record the rising and setting patterns of the brightest light in the evening and early morning skies the planet named-in-English: "Venus."
The Olmec and Maya cultures of Mexico and the Guatemala highlands in Central America may have been the first to create a 260-day Venus calendar, recognized today as the most accurate calendar in the world.
In Maya lore, Venus, the bright light traveling the sky, is recognised as the "Two Brothers": the Feathered Serpent and his Shadow Twin brother.
The planet Venus rises in the East, in the early pre-dawn sky as the Morning Star or "Feathered Serpent" and is the third brightest- light in the sky after our Sun and Moon.
Venus shines bright in the early morning pre-dawn Eastern skies as the Morning Star for 236-days or approximately 8-months.
The Feathered Serpent days are days of of: peace, rebirth, rebuilding and common unity.
After 236-days as the Feathered Serpent/Morning Star Venus disappears from the skies for 90-days, slowly spinning away, farther and farther from Earth, hidden away from view behind the Sun.
After 90-days hidden behind the Sun, Venus is seen rising again after sunset in the West evening-sky.
There in the western skies Venus shines as the Evening Star or "Shadow Twin" for 250-days.
The Shadow Twin days are days of: ceremonial challenges and ceremonial conflict theater, or, if not dealt with in a high spiritual energy of integrity, real war and unexpected challenges, forced changes that break-up old patterns.
Venus as the Evening Star becomes brighter and brighter as it moves towards Earth, closer and closer on its nearest approach to Earth every 1.6-years.
Then, just as Venus is at its brightest right after sunset, it disappears for 8-days. In Maya lore, the "Shadow Twin" has died.
For 8-days Venus moves across the front face of the Sun, hidden by the glare of the Sun, and directly between the Sun and the Earth. It’s at these moments, every ~19 months, when our nearest neighbor planet Venus passes close-by to Earth.
This exact planetary alignment "inferior conjunction" of Earth-Venus-Sun next occurs on June 3, 2020.
After 8-days hidden, Venus reappears, reborn at dawn at the side of the Sun, at sunrise in the East dawn sky.
In its new phase as the Morning Star, the Mayan "Feathered Serpent" is the brightest light before dawn for the next 236-days.
The Morning Star/Feathered Serpent days of peace, rebirth, rebuilding and common unity return. The Tides of Time.
When Venus is approaching Earth as the Evening Star: the combined magnetic & gravitational forces of the Earth and Venus, as they move closer together, increases pressure and stress.
For example: when two bar magnets, with the same positive-sides or negative-sides facing each other, are forced together this creates a strong RESISTANCE & ENERGY re-balancing, which precipitates the stronger force-fields energy & stress the closer the magnets are.
When Venus becomes the Morning Star: the combined magnetic & gravitational forces of the Earth and Venus: decrease, subside, move apart, and reduces overall pressure and stress.
These rising and setting patterns of the planet Venus are repeated on-average every 584.92-days, that's about every ~19-months.
These Venus 'fly-by' patterns repeat exactly five-times every 8-years, during five different months of the year.
Let’s examine this 8-year pulse, this 8-year rhythm of Venus.
It is a VERY important rhythm. Indeed, it is a hythm that connects to the musical scale, a truly sacred rhythm pattern that holds the key to understanding the musical encoding of time in our solar system.
If we could super speed-up time and watch the orbits of the planets around our Sun from high above our solar system, we would see that over every 8-year-cycle of time Venus exactly aligns between the Sun and the Earth 5-times, creating a spiraling 5-pointed star pattern around the Sun.
A five-pointed star pattern is exactly the same kind of pattern design detected within the double-helix spiral blueprints of genetic DNA, in the cells of all living creatures on Earth.
The organs of the body are spaced a certain distance from the brain, and in the same way the 'organs' of our solar system, the Planets, are spaced a certain distance from the Sun.
The key to the accuracy of the Maya calendar is that its based upon the exact rising and setting-dates of the planet-Venus, as was recorded within the ancient Mayan painted-paper sacred books; for Venus orbit creates a five-pointed star pattern orbit around our Sun.
Mayan astronomers recorded the exact Mayan dates Venus appears-and-disappears in the sky over 8-year cycles of time. Many pages of calculations for Venus are matched with the Mayan daysign Ajaw or Ahau (LORD or SUN) as documented in the Mayan records.
The Mayan daysign representing the planet Venus are drawn next to the Mayan calendar day: Ajaw or LORD.
So, Mayan calendar accuracy Rule #1 is: Every 8-years the first sighting of Venus rising in the eastern dawn sky occurs on Mayan day: Ajaw LORD.
The most-recent major-date in the 8-year-cycle for Venus-rising as the Feathered-Serpent and Morning-Star:
~October 31, 2018 12 LORD ajaw - day #220
The first sighting of Venus rising on the specific Mayan calendar-day of LORD ajaw every eight years determines the correctMaya calendar day of adjustment, if neccessary, to keep the calendar accurate.
Like both the Gregorian and Julian calendars the Mayan calendar must also be adjusted, a day-backwards sometimes, one day must be subtracted, about every ten years or so, if neccessary.
Because of the orbit length of the Venus year, 224.7-days, those "partially missing" days every year of 0.3-days begin to add up.
The Venus-Sun 'inconjunct' alignments occur 3-days earlier every 10-years. So even with the 2 extra leap year- ays added in every 8-years an additional day must be subtracted to keep the Mayan calendar aligned to the rising of Venus on LORD ajaw days.
Year 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Venus Days 0.3 0.6 0.9 1.2 1.5 1.8 2.1 2.4 2.7 3.0
This then raises challenging questions, such as: How can we subtract one extra day? Where does that Mayan day go? And, WHEN does the adjustment take place, if needed?
We must realize that the 260-day calendar is really tracking an invisible subtle ‘energy-field’ that the planets are always moving thru. And since the planets do not have exact circular orbital patterns, the orbits are oval egg-shaped, their orbital revolutions we observe mathematically have variations that do not overtly appear at first as simple Earth-time calculation formulas and so we have to adjust our Sun-based calendars to compensate.
The total Mayan calendar 'energy field' is actually slightly less-than 260-days in duration. So little-by-little every day, every month and every year the Mayan calendar slowly slips backwards, so that, for example, the Mayan "New Year Day" happens now in mid-January rather than in March as it did in the 1500’s.
Here is the ideal 8-Year pattern as recorded in the Mayan "Madrid Codex":
Mayan Symbol Venus - Rises or Sets (Star Pattern Cycles: 1 – 5)
LORD *Rises as Morning Star (1)
GUARDIAN Sets as Morning Star
DREAM Rises as Evening Star
GUARDIAN Sets as Evening Star
SEED *Rises as Morning Star (2)
LORD Sets as Morning Star
DOG Rises as Evening Star
LORD Sets as Evening Star
STAR *Rises as Morning Star (3)
SEED Sets as Morning Star
JAGUAR Rises as Evening Star
SEED Sets as Evening Star
STAIRS *Rises as Morning Star (4)
STAR Sets as Morning Star
FLINT Rises as Evening Star
STAR Sets as Evening Star
GUARDIAN *Rises as Morning Star (5)
STAIRS Sets as Morning Star
WIND Rises as Evening Star
STAIRS Sets as Evening Star